Chapter 6 Flashcards

acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
Enzyme in the synaptic cleft that clears the cleft of acetylcholine released by the presynaptic cell. AChE hydrolyzes ACh into acetate and choline; the choline is then transported back into nerve terminals, where it is used to resynthesize ACh.
biogenic amines
Category of small-molecule neurotransmitters; includes the catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine), serotonin, and histamine.
catecholamine
A term referring to molecules containing a catechol ring and an amino group; examples are the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
dopamine
A catecholamine neurotransmitter.
epinephrine (adrenaline)
Catecholamine hormone and neurotransmitter that binds to adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptors.
glutamate–glutamine cycle
A metabolic cycle of glutamate release and resynthesis involving both neuronal and glial cells.
histamine
A biogenic amine neurotransmitter derived from the amino acid histidine.
muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)
A group of G-protein-coupled acetylcholine receptors activated by the plant alkaloid muscarine.
neuropeptides
A general term describing a large number of peptides that function as neurotransmitters or neurohormones.
norepinephrine
Catecholamine hormone and neurotransmitter that binds to α- and β-adrenergic receptors, both of which are G-protein-coupled receptors. Also known as noradrenaline.
pre-propeptides
The first protein translation products synthesized in a cell. These polypeptides are usually much larger than the final, mature peptide and often contain signal sequences that target the peptide to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
propeptides
Partially processed forms of proteins containing peptide sequences that play a role in the correct folding of the final protein.
serotonin
A biogenic amine neurotransmitter derived from the amino acid tryptophan.
small-molecule neurotransmitters
The non-peptide neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, the amino acids glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glycine, as well as the biogenic amines.
substance P
An 11-amino acid neuropeptide; the first neuropeptide to be discovered.
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