Chapter 12 Flashcards

anopsia
A large deficit in the visual field resulting from pathological changes in some component of the primary visual pathway.
binocular field
The two symmetrical, overlapping visual hemifields. The left hemifield includes the nasal visual field of the right eye and the temporal visual field of the left eye; the right hemifield includes the temporal field of the right eye and the nasal field of the left eye.
cerebral achromatopsia
Loss of color vision as a result of damage to extrastriate visual cortex.
Edinger–Westphal nucleus
Midbrain nucleus containing the autonomic neurons that constitute the efferent limb of the pupillary light reflex.
magnocellular layer
A component of the primary visual pathway specialized for the perception of motion; so named because of the relatively large ("magno") cells involved.
Meyer’s loop
That part of the optic radiation that runs in the caudal portion of the temporal lobe.
nasal division
Referring to the region of the visual field of each eye in the direction of the nose.
ocular dominance columns
The segregated termination patterns of thalamic inputs representing the two eyes in the primary visual cortex of some mammalian species.
optic chiasm
The junction of the two optic nerves on the ventral aspect of the diencephalon, where axons from the nasal divisions of each retina cross the midline.
optic disk
The region of the retina where the axons of retinal ganglion cells exit to form the optic nerve and where the ophthalmic artery and vein enter the eye. Also called the optic papilla.
optic nerve
The nerve (cranial nerve II) containing the axons of retinal ganglion cells; extends from the eye to the optic chiasm.
optic radiation
Portion of the internal capsule that comprises the axons of lateral geniculate neurons that carry visual information to the striate cortex.
optic tract
The axons of retinal ganglion cells after they have passed through the region of the optic chiasm en route to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
parvocellular layer
A component of the primary visual pathway specialized for the detection of detail and color; so named because of the relatively small cells involved.
pretectum
A group of nuclei located at the junction of the thalamus and the midbrain; these nuclei are important in the pupillary light reflex, relaying information from the retina to the Edinger–Westphal nucleus.
primary visual cortex (V1)
Brodmann's area 17 in the occipital lobe; major cortical target of the retinal sensory cells. Also called striate cortex because the prominence of layer 4 in myelin-stained sections gives this region a striped (striated) appearance.
primary visual pathway
Pathway from the retina via the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to the primary visual cortex; carries the information that allows conscious visual perception. Also known as the retinogenticulocortical pathway.
scotoma
A small deficit in the visual field resulting from pathological changes in some component of the primary visual pathway.
stereopsis
The perception of depth that results from the fact that the two eyes view the world from slightly different angles.
superior colliculus
Laminated structure that forms part of the roof of the midbrain; plays an important role in orienting movements of the head and eyes.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Hypothalamic nucleus lying just above the optic chiasm that receives direct input from the retina; involved in light entrainment of circadian rhythms.
temporal division
Referring to the region of the visual field of each eye in the direction of the temple.
visual field
The area in the external world normally seen by one or both eyes (referred to, respectively, as the monocular and binocular fields).
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